Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth,Rahuri, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra
Corresponding Author's Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
In natural systems, plants face a plethora of antagonists and thus posses a myriad of defense and have evolved multiple defense mechanisms by which they are able to cope with various kinds of biotic and abiotic stress. Generally, it is difficult to assign a change in the physiology of metabolism of the crop to a specific stress factor as normally a complex variety of various stress factors affects the plant simultaneously. However, there are interconnections that exist between distinct and opposing signaling response pathways for defense against pathogens and insect herbivores and there also appear to be multiple response pathways invoked, depending on the specific stress context (Kusnierczyk et al., 2007). Besides antimicrobial nature, some of which are performed and some of which induced by infection. There are various other modes of defense include the construction of polymeric barriers to pathogen penetration and the synthesis of enzymes that degrade pathogen cell wall (Hammond et al., 1996). In addition, plants employ specific recognition and signalling systems enabling the rapid detection of pathogen invasion and initiation of vigorous defensive responses (Schaller et al., 1996).
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